Satellite meteorological data
Meteorological data measured by satellites is used for regional weather forecasting mathematical models or climate models to detect climate trends and changes world wide.
World wide several geostationary or non-stationary meteo-satellites collect various meteorological and geographical parameters such as land surface temperature, the amount of precipitable water, the degree of cloud cover, the surface albedo, and the amount of insolation from satellite measurements of radiant energy emitted by the Earth and its atmosphere.
Since the satellites can only observe the atmosphere from the top, sophisticated solar radiation transfer algorithms are needed to calculate the irradiance at the earth surface. To optimize and validate the indirect satellite measurements, ground based solar sensors are generally used.